Glinski Award for Excellence in Research. Contents: Part I. General concepts: 1.
- About Ghosts of Spain;
- Coating Protection for Reinforcement;
- The Back to Eden Cookbook.
Flow properties and basic principles; 2. Measuring systems; 3. Measurement uncertainty; 4. Signal conditioning, discretization, and analysis; 5. Background for optical experimentation; 6. Fluid mechanical apparatus; 7. Towards a sound experiment; Part II. Measurement techniques: 8. Measurement of flow pressure; 9. Measurement of flow rate; And the question Mark Zuckerberg is dealing with is: Should my company be the arbiter of truth and decency for two billion people?
Nobody in the history of technology has dealt with that. The campus is a self-contained universe, with the full range of free Silicon Valley perks: dry cleaning, haircuts, music lessons, and food by the acre, including barbecue, biryani, and salad bars. The campus, which was designed with the help of consultants from Disney, is arranged as an ersatz town that encircles a central plaza, with shops and restaurants and offices along a main street. Executives offer fulsome praise.
- Race and Ethnic Relations in the First Person?
- Cancun et la Riviera Maya;
- The Others () - IMDb?
- Key Concepts in Energy!
- Jewish Life in Small-Town America: A History?
- Italian Crime Filmography, 1968-1980;
- Value Engineering: Practical Applications...for Design, Construction, Maintenance and Operations (RSMeans).
Before I visited Zuckerberg for the first time, in June, members of his staff offered the kind of advice usually reserved for approaching a skittish bird: proceed gingerly, build a connection, avoid surprises. The contrast between the public and the private Zuckerberg reminded me of Hillary Clinton. In both cases, friends complain that the popular image is divorced from the casual, funny, generous person they know. Yet neither Zuckerberg nor Clinton has found a way to publicly express a more genuine persona. I asked Zuckerberg about his aversion to opening up. And maybe my persona, or at least how I felt comfortable acting publicly, would shift.
He has tried, at times, to puncture his own bubble. He would talk for, like, five, and just ask questions. But the exercise came off as stilted and tone-deaf. Zuckerberg travelled with a professional photographer, who documented him feeding a calf in Wisconsin, ordering barbecue, and working on an assembly line at a Ford plant in Michigan. Online, people joked that the photos made him look like an extraterrestrial exploring the human race for the first time.
Zuckerberg has spent nearly half his life inside a company of his own making, handpicking his lieutenants, and sculpting his environment to suit him. He is red-green color-blind, and he chose blue because he sees it most vividly. Long before it seemed inevitable or even plausible, Mark Elliot Zuckerberg had an outsized sense of his own potential. They married and had four children. Mark, the only boy, was the second-oldest. His mother, who had become a psychiatrist, eventually gave up her career to take care of the kids and manage the dental office, which was connected to the family home.
So he always had not just a system for drilling teeth but, like, the laser system for drilling teeth that was controlled by the computer. In the nineteen-eighties and nineties, Ed bought early personal computers—the Atari , the I. XT—and Mark learned to code. He was thinking about things that other people were not.
When Zuckerberg was a junior in high school, he transferred to Phillips Exeter Academy, where he spent most of his time coding, fencing, and studying Latin. I think Augustus is one of the most fascinating. Basically, through a really harsh approach, he established two hundred years of world peace. He also eliminated political opponents, banished his daughter for promiscuity, and was suspected of arranging the execution of his grandson. Two hundred years feels unattainable.
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All the photos were different sculptures of Augustus. In , Zuckerberg went to Harvard , where he embraced the hacker mystique, which celebrates brilliance in pursuit of disruption. In , as a sophomore, he embarked on the project whose origin story is now well known: the founding of Thefacebook.
Her parents, who traced their roots to China, had grown up in Vietnam and arrived in the U. Priscilla was the eldest of three daughters, and the first member of her family to go to college. In , she stopped seeing patients to be the day-to-day head of the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative. When I asked Chan about how Zuckerberg had responded at home to the criticism of the past two years, she talked to me about Sitzfleisch , the German term for sitting and working for long periods of time.
After his sophomore year, Zuckerberg moved to Palo Alto and never left. Zuckerberg carried two sets of business cards. Facebook was fortunate to launch when it did: Silicon Valley was recovering from the dot-com bust and was entering a period of near-messianic ambitions. The Internet was no longer so new that users were scarce, but still new enough that it was largely unregulated; first movers could amass vast followings and consolidate power, and the coming rise of inexpensive smartphones would bring millions of new people online.
Most important, Facebook capitalized on a resource that most people hardly knew existed: the willingness of users to subsidize the company by handing over colossal amounts of personal information, for free. In Facebook, Zuckerberg had found the instrument to achieve his conception of greatness. Other social networks had maxed out at around that level, and Facebook employees wondered if they had hit a hidden limit. Zuckerberg created a special Growth Team, which had broad latitude to find ways of boosting the numbers. Among other fixes, they discovered that, by offering the site in more languages, they could open huge markets.
Alex Schultz, a founding member of the Growth Team, said that he and his colleagues were fanatical in their pursuit of expansion. Facebook left no opportunity untapped. In , the company asked the Federal Election Commission for an exemption to rules requiring the source of funding for political ads to be disclosed.
The company had opened its trove of data to programmers who wanted to build Facebook games, personality tests, and other apps. After a few months at Facebook, Parakilas was put in charge of a team responsible for making sure that outsiders were not misusing the data, and he was unnerved by what he found. In one case, he said, a developer was harvesting user information, including that of children, to create unauthorized profiles on its own Web site.
Facebook had given away data before it had a system to check for abuse. Parakilas suggested that there be an audit to uncover the scale of the problem. Meanwhile, you looked at the Growth Team and they had engineers coming out of their ears. All the smartest minds are focussed on doing whatever they can possibly do to get those growth numbers up. Facebook engineers became a new breed of behaviorists, tweaking levers of vanity and passion and susceptibility. The real-world effects were striking.
In , when Chan was in medical school, she and Zuckerberg discussed a critical shortage of organs for transplant, inspiring Zuckerberg to add a small, powerful nudge on Facebook: if people indicated that they were organ donors, it triggered a notification to friends, and, in turn, a cascade of social pressure. Researchers later found that, on the first day the feature appeared, it increased official organ-donor enrollment more than twentyfold nationwide. The technique boosted turnout by three hundred and forty thousand people—more than four times the number of votes separating Trump and Clinton in key states in the race.
These powers of social engineering could be put to dubious purposes. In , Facebook data scientists used nearly seven hundred thousand people as guinea pigs, feeding them happy or sad posts to test whether emotion is contagious on social media. They concluded that it is. When the findings were published, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , they caused an uproar among users, many of whom were horrified that their emotions may have been surreptitiously manipulated. But Facebook and Snapchat, in their design features, are persuading a teen-ager to wake up and see photo after photo after photo of their friends having fun without them, even if it makes them feel worse.
As Facebook grew, Zuckerberg and his executives adopted a core belief: even if people criticized your decisions, they would eventually come around. In one of the first demonstrations of that idea, in , Facebook introduced the News Feed, a feature that suddenly alerted friends whenever a user changed profile pictures, joined groups, or altered a relationship status.
Users revolted. There was a street protest at the headquarters, and hundreds of thousands of people joined a Facebook group opposing the change. We hear you. In , Zuckerberg made his most unpopular decision at the fledgling company. Some of them I had to fire because it was just too dysfunctional. It just completely blew up. But the thing that I learned from that is, if you stick with your values and with what you believe you want to be doing in the world, you can get through. On several occasions, Zuckerberg stumbled when it came to issues of privacy. Users could opt out, but many had no idea that the feature existed until it revealed upcoming holiday gifts, or, in some cases, exposed extramarital affairs.
Despite the apology, Zuckerberg was convinced that he was ahead of his users, not at odds with them. The reality is, anything we do will have issues in the future. Some of the film was fictionalized. But other elements cut close to the truth, including the depiction of his juvenile bravado and the early feuds over ownership. Zuckerberg and Facebook had chosen not to be involved in the production, and the portrayal was unflattering.
Zuckerberg, played by Jesse Eisenberg, is cocksure and cold, and the real Zuckerberg found the depiction hurtful. Before the movie came out, Facebook executives debated how to respond. Zuckerberg settled on a stance of effortful good cheer, renting a movie theatre to screen it for the staff. I still think it forms the basis of a lot of what people believe about Mark. While the movie contributed to the fortress mentality on campus, Zuckerberg made a series of decisions that solidified his confidence in his instincts.
In , he paid a billion dollars for Instagram , the photo-sharing service, which at the time had only thirteen employees.
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Outside the industry, the startup appeared wildly overpriced, but it proved to be one of the best investments in the history of the Internet. Today, Instagram is valued at more than a hundred times what Zuckerberg paid for it, and, even more important, it is popular with young people, a cohort that shows declining interest in Facebook.
That spring, Facebook went public on the Nasdaq, at a valuation of a hundred and four billion dollars. There were technical glitches on the day of the listing, and many people doubted that the company could earn enough money to justify the valuation. The share price promptly sank. The Wall Street Journal called the I.
But what I felt was, we were at a sufficient skill and complexity that it was going to take a couple years to work through the problem, but I had strong conviction that we were doing the right thing. Zuckerberg was happy to make sharp turns to achieve his aims. In , when users started moving from desktop computers to phones, Facebook swerved toward mobile technology.
Zuckerberg told employees that he would kick them out of his office if their ideas did not account for the transition. In early , Zuckerberg directed employees to accelerate the release of Facebook Live, a video-streaming service, and expanded its team of engineers from twelve to more than a hundred. As a result, Facebook Live videos of people committing suicide, or engaged in criminal activity, started circulating before reviewers had time to race through, find the issues, and take the videos down.
A few months after the service launched, a Chicago man named Antonio Perkins was fatally shot on Facebook Live and the video was viewed hundreds of thousands of times. Maybe someone dies in a terrorist attack coordinated on our tools. And still we connect people.
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This was one that most people at Facebook including myself disagreed with strongly. Zuckerberg was also experimenting with philanthropy. For all the criticism, the project has produced some measurable improvements. A Harvard study found greater gains in English than the state average, and a study by MarGrady Research, an education-policy group, found that high-school graduation rates and over-all student enrollment in Newark have risen since the donation.
Zuckerberg emphasizes those results, even as he acknowledges flaws in his approach. In contrast to a traditional foundation, an L. In other words, rather than trying to win over politicians and citizens in places like Newark, Zuckerberg and Chan could help elect politicians who agree with them, and rally the public directly by running ads and supporting advocacy groups. A spokesperson for C. The structure has gained popularity in Silicon Valley but has been criticized for allowing wealthy individuals to orchestrate large-scale social agendas behind closed doors.
Characteristically, Zuckerberg favors the optimistic scenario. I asked Bill Gates, whose private foundation is the largest in the U. As Facebook expanded, so did its blind spots. Local officials resorted to shutting down the Internet sixty-five times last year. In Libya, people took to Facebook to trade weapons, and armed groups relayed the locations of targets for artillery strikes.
Nowhere has the damage been starker than in Myanmar , where the Rohingya Muslim minority has been subject to brutal killings, gang rapes, and torture. Three years later, that figure had reached twenty-five per cent. Phones often came preloaded with the Facebook app, and Buddhist extremists seeking to inflame ethnic tensions with the Rohingya mastered the art of misinformation.
Beginning in , a series of experts on Myanmar met with Facebook officials to warn them that it was fuelling attacks on the Rohingya. David Madden, an entrepreneur based in Myanmar, delivered a presentation to officials at the Menlo Park headquarters, pointing out that the company was playing a role akin to that of the radio broadcasts that spread hatred during the Rwandan genocide. By last March, the situation had become dire: almost a million Rohingya had fled the country, and more than a hundred thousand were confined to internal camps.
The United Nations investigator in charge of examining the crisis, which the U. The situation is getting worse and worse here. I saw Zuckerberg the following morning, and asked him what was taking so long. But, yeah, I think the situation in Myanmar is terrible. I asked him to specify the problem. It takes time to hire the people and train them, and to build the systems that can flag stuff for them. Over the years, Zuckerberg had come to see his ability to reject complaints as a virtue.
But, by , that stance had primed the company for a crisis. The election was supposed to be good for Facebook. During the campaign, Trump used Facebook to raise two hundred and eighty million dollars. Just days before the election, his team paid for a voter-suppression effort on the platform.
After the election, Facebook executives fretted that the company would be blamed for the spread of fake news. At a tech conference a few days later, Zuckerberg was defensive. It is an issue on an ongoing basis, and we need to take that seriously. Shortly after the election, Mark Warner, the ranking Democrat on the Senate Intelligence Committee, contacted Facebook to discuss Russian interference. But, by the spring, he sensed that the company was realizing that it had a serious problem. Facebook moved fitfully to acknowledge the role it had played in the election. In September of , after Robert Mueller obtained a search warrant, Facebook agreed to give his office an inventory of ads linked to Russia and the details of who had paid for them.
In October, Facebook disclosed that Russian operatives had published about eighty thousand posts, reaching a hundred and twenty-six million Americans. For five days, Zuckerberg said nothing.