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The maximum time for the CPU to respond to a bus request is the length of a machine cycle and the external controller can maintain control of the bus for as many clock cycles as is required. If very long DMA cycles are used, and dynamic memories are used, the external controller also performs the refresh function. When the signal is accepted, a special M1 cycle is generated. During this special M1 cycle, the IORQ signal becomes active instead of the normal MREQ to indicate that the interrupting device can place an 8-bit vector on the data bus.

Two wait states are automatically added to this cycle. These states are added so that a ripple priority interrupt scheme can be easily implemented. Refer to Chapter 6 for details on how the interrupt response vector is utilized by the CPU. This signal is sampled at the same time as the interrupt line, but this line takes priority over the normal interrupt and it can not be disabled under software control. Its usual function is to provide immediate response to important signals such as an impending power failure.

The CPU response to a non-maskable interrupt is similar to a normal memory read operation. The only difference is that the content of the data bus is ignored while the processor automatically stores the PC in the external stack and jumps to location H. The service routine for the non-maskable interrupt must begin at this location if this interrupt is used. The two interrupt lines are sampled with the rising clock edge during each T4 state as depicted in Figure If a non-maskable interrupt has been received or a maskable interrupt has been received and the interrupt enable flip-flop is set, then the HALT state is exited on the next rising clock edge.

The following cycle is an interrupt acknowledge cycle corresponding to the type of interrupt that was received.

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If both are received at this time, then the non-maskable one is acknowledged since it has highest priority. Bits 3 and 5 are not used. Block Transfer Group Destination Reg. DE Source Reg. These five are listed in Table 8. The decimal adjust instruction can adjust for subtraction as well as addition, making BCD arithmetic operations simple.

Note that to allow for this operation the flag N is used.

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This flag is set if the last arithmetic operation was a subtract. Finally, notice that a reset carry instruction is not included in the Z80 because this operation can be easily achieved through other instructions such as a logical AND of the accumulator with itself. Table 9 lists all the bit arithmetic operations between bit registers.

There are five groups of instructions including add with carry and subtract with carry.

Zilog Z80 CPU Running at 1 Hz

These two groups simplify address calculation operations or other bit arithmetic operations. Table 7. Indexed Immed.


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Table 8. All the rotate and shift Op Codes are depicted in Figure Also included in the Z80 are arithmetic and logical shift operations.

These operations are useful in a wide range of applications including integer multiplication and division. The maximum time for the CPU to respond to a bus request is the length of a machine cycle and the external controller can maintain control of the bus for as many clock cycles as is required. If very long DMA cycles are used, and dynamic memories are used, the external controller also performs the refresh function. When the signal is accepted, a special M1 cycle is generated.

Zilog Z08470 User Manual

During this special M1 cycle, the IORQ signal becomes active instead of the normal MREQ to indicate that the interrupting device can place an 8-bit vector on the data bus. Two wait states are automatically added to this cycle. These states are added so that a ripple priority interrupt scheme can be easily implemented. Refer to Chapter 6 for details on how the interrupt response vector is utilized by the CPU. This signal is sampled at the same time as the interrupt line, but this line takes priority over the normal interrupt and it can not be disabled under software control.

Its usual function is to provide immediate response to important signals such as an impending power failure. The CPU response to a non-maskable interrupt is similar to a normal memory read operation. The only difference is that the content of the data bus is ignored while the processor automatically stores the PC in the external stack and jumps to location H. The service routine for the non-maskable interrupt must begin at this location if this interrupt is used.

Zilog Z80 - Wikipedia

The two interrupt lines are sampled with the rising clock edge during each T4 state as depicted in Figure If a non-maskable interrupt has been received or a maskable interrupt has been received and the interrupt enable flip-flop is set, then the HALT state is exited on the next rising clock edge. The following cycle is an interrupt acknowledge cycle corresponding to the type of interrupt that was received.


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  8. If both are received at this time, then the non-maskable one is acknowledged since it has highest priority. Bits 3 and 5 are not used. Block Transfer Group Destination Reg. DE Source Reg.

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    These five are listed in Table 8. The decimal adjust instruction can adjust for subtraction as well as addition, making BCD arithmetic operations simple. Note that to allow for this operation the flag N is used. This flag is set if the last arithmetic operation was a subtract. Finally, notice that a reset carry instruction is not included in the Z80 because this operation can be easily achieved through other instructions such as a logical AND of the accumulator with itself.

    Table 9 lists all the bit arithmetic operations between bit registers. There are five groups of instructions including add with carry and subtract with carry. These two groups simplify address calculation operations or other bit arithmetic operations. Table 7. Indexed Immed. Table 8. All the rotate and shift Op Codes are depicted in Figure Also included in the Z80 are arithmetic and logical shift operations. These operations are useful in a wide range of applications including integer multiplication and division.